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i yo                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
Karacoram :in 1253 ; by this date Kuyuk was dead and
Mangu, son of Tuli, had been elected Khakan. Mangu
accorded the envoy more than one audience, treated him
kindly, and gave him letters for his master, but he was
always half-drunk, and never committed himself to
acknowledging the Christian religion, as had been hoped.
Both John di Piano Carpini and William of Rubruquis
were great travellers and keen observers, whose courage
amidst constant danger and equally constant hunger
deserves great admiration.
Yet another traveller who merits a place on the roll
of fame is Hayton, king of Armenia, who reached the -
court of Mangu shortly after the departure of Rubruquis.
He travelled by way of the camp of Batu and was received
with much honour by the Khakan. On his return he
traversed Transoxiana, crossed Northern Persia, and
reached his kingdom after completing a great round
journey, an account of which has fortunately been pre-
served to us.
The Administration of Northern Persia before Hidagu
Khan.—When Chormaghun was despatched by Ogotay to
attack Jalal-u-Din, the Mongol Governor of Khwarazm,
Chintimur by name, was instructed to co-operate by
occupying Khorasan. Many districts had previously
escaped devastation, but all were now systematically
spoiled. These proceedings were made difficult for
some time by two officers of Jalal-u-Din who waged
a guerilla warfare from the Nishapur Mountains, but
they were finally defeated near Sabzawar after a battle
lasting three days, in which the Mongols lost two
thousand men.
Chintimur died in A.D. 1235 and was succeeded by
Keurguez, his secretary. This very capable man set to
work to organize the administration and to repress the
terrible exactions under which the peasants groaned.
Later on, after clearing himself from certain charges
brought against him before the Khakan, he was given
the governorship of all the provinces west1 of the Oxus
and was able to rescue them from the cruel and impolitic
rule of the officers of Chormaghun. He chose as his